Networking in Windows is deceptively easy. The level of development Microsoft has achieved to make it so is quite considerable, and I contrast it here with the amount of tweaking required to get Unix services off the ground.
That said, a well-implemented IP structure is the cornerstone of any enterprise (or even serious home) office deployment. I’ve composed a series of five articles on topics you should be really getting right! There are certainly more, but these stick out in my mind.
4. Disable NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT)
The first network I ever configured around 1996 used the NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) protocol, and worked fantastically on a Windows 3.11 or 95 computer with 4MB RAM, happily fetching my files on my LAN and helping me (virtually) shoot my friends. Locating the file server (or peer) was accomplished using broadcasts, routing wasn’t an option and I had absolutely no need to talk to anything but other Windows devices, which was fine.
These days, I expect to be able to retrieve 4MB per second on my LAN, probably more, my computer regularly sends packets destined for a server thousands of miles away running who-knows-what, and modern network topologies would have baffled me back then. Microsoft has gone a long way to make sure every product of theirs, and supporting services for applications, are fully transitioned to TCP/IP, and yet NetBIOS is still in there, broadcasting the names of my computer, domain and the servers back at the office to all and sundry, just in case.
Turn it off!
There is a minor security concern that these broadcasts advertise to everyone on whatever LAN you’re plugged into where you work, what version of Windows you’re running etc, and there’s even been some mutterings of an exploit or two, but the threat is not significant.
NetBIOS advertises hostname of a service, be it a file share, chat endpoint or workgroup in a 16-byte field, with the last being reserved for the node type (e.g. 00 for Workstation, 03 for Messages, 20 for a File Server etc). From this, we’ve inherited the hideous 15-character limitation on hostnames and domains. Now I’m not advocating long hostnames as a rule, your naming system should be concise and accurate, but just as 8.3 filenames giving way to 255 characters in Windows 95 freed us from ever-more cryptic shorthand, this is a system that is long past the shelf date.
The short hostnames are a bother, but the biggest evil of NetBIOS (specifically NetBIOS over TCP/IP, or NBT) is to hide mistakes. If your DNS is improperly functioning, a NetBIOS Name Service (NBNS) broadcast or Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) query picks up the slack by asking everyone on the network in the hope that the right node will respond, or forcing you to rely on the WINS service, which is steadily being obsoleted by the folks at Microsoft.
Do yourself a favour, disable NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT) on every interface of systems in your lab and home from the word go. If you’re doing labs for training, make this part of the base install, or include it in your domain policy. Of course, for your company network run this through your testing process first. You may spend some time fixing the problems that crop up, but like me you’ll be quite surprised just how much you were depending on it in the first place.